Introduced from the Mediterranean, toadflaxes are colony-forming herbaceous perennials, the stems growing 10 to 120 cm tall from extensive, flexible rhizomes. Toadflaxes have bright yellow, spurred flowers and waxy blue-green leaves. Yellow toadflax—also known as “butter-and-eggs” or “wild snapdragon” - is smaller, to 80 cm, with narrower leaves and yellow and white flowers. Both species were originally introduced as ornamentals.
How does it spread?
Toadflaxes spread via seeds and deep, extensive rhizomes. Seeds are dispersed by wind, water and wildlife (including livestock). They are also commonly found in wildflower seed mixtures.
Where would I find it?
Prolific seeders, they readily invade roadsides, pastures, grasslands, forest clearings, disturbed or cultivated areas.
What problems does it cause?
Toadflaxes are highly adaptable and can outcompete native plants for soil moisture, nutrients and space. Toadflaxes spread aggressively; at higher densities they can reduce land value, the availability of quality forage for grazing animals, reduce ecological diversity and increase soil erosion potential.
- Canada Goldenrod (Solidago altissima subsp. gilvocanescens) BC native. (z2)